what do sea turtles eat and drink



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Elucidating the dietary habits of these enigmatic marine creatures, sea turtles have a varied diet comprising of different organisms found in the ocean. They primarily feed on seagrass, algae, jellyfish, and small invertebrates such as shrimp and crabs. These ancient reptiles have specialized jaws that aid them in crushing and consuming their food. Additionally, sea turtles mainly drink seawater, as the specialized glands located near their eyes help them excrete excess salt from their bodies. However, despite their robust feeding behaviors, these creatures are faced with numerous challenges in their natural habitat, including plastic pollution and the destruction of their feeding grounds. The knowledge of their dietary needs contributes significantly to their conservation efforts.

Key Takeaways:

  • Sea turtles primarily eat: Sea turtles have a diet that consists mainly of sea grasses, algae, jellyfish, and small invertebrates such as sponges and crabs.
  • Sea turtles drink: Sea turtles obtain hydration from the water they consume while eating, as well as from the salt glands located near their eyes that help them excrete excess salt.
  • Diet variation: The specific diet of a sea turtle can vary based on the species as well as their life stage, with some preferring a predominantly herbivorous diet while others may include more carnivorous elements.

Sea Turtle Diet Composition

One of the most fascinating aspects of sea turtles is their diverse diet composition. While the specific diet of a sea turtle can vary depending on the species, age, and habitat, most sea turtles are classified as either herbivorous, omnivorous, or carnivorous.

Herbivorous Sea Turtles

Herbivorous sea turtles primarily feed on marine algae, seagrasses, and other plant materials. These species, such as the green sea turtle, have specialized jaws and strong beaks that allow them to crush and consume vegetation. They play a crucial role in maintaining the health of seagrass beds and marine ecosystems by keeping the vegetation in check. Their diet is mainly composed of green and brown algae, although some species also consume seagrasses and mangrove fruits. Their feeding habits are not only essential for their own survival but also for the overall health of the marine environment.

Omnivorous and Carnivorous Sea Turtles

Unlike herbivorous sea turtles, omnivorous and carnivorous sea turtles have a broader diet that includes not only plants but also small crustaceans, jellyfish, sponges, and mollusks. Some sea turtle species, such as the loggerhead and hawksbill turtles, are known to feed on a variety of invertebrates and occasionally small fish. Their diet is essential for maintaining a balanced marine ecosystem, as they help control the populations of various prey species. However, some omnivorous and carnivorous sea turtles, such as the leatherback turtle, have been known to ingest plastic debris mistaken for jellyfish, posing a significant threat to their health. Efforts to reduce plastic pollution are crucial to the survival of these magnificent creatures.

Feeding Habits and Strategies

To thrive in their marine habitats, sea turtles have developed various feeding habits and strategies. Their diet largely depends on the species of sea turtle, as well as their age and the available food sources in their environment.

Hunting and Foraging Techniques

Sea turtles use a variety of hunting and foraging techniques to procure their food. Depending on their species, they may be herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores. Some sea turtles use their powerful jaws to crush and consume hard-shelled prey like crustaceans and mollusks. Others have specialized diets that include jellyfish, sea grass, algae, and sponges. They use their strong jaws and sharp beaks to tear and bite off chunks of food before swallowing.

Seasonal and Developmental Dietary Changes

Sea turtles may undergo seasonal and developmental dietary changes as they mature and as their environment changes. For example, young sea turtles may have a different diet compared to adult sea turtles to support their rapid growth and development. Additionally, changes in water temperature and the availability of food sources may impact the diet of sea turtles, forcing them to adapt their feeding habits accordingly.

Sea Turtle Hydration: How They Drink

Despite spending the majority of their lives in the ocean, sea turtles do not actually drink the seawater surrounding them. Instead, they obtain their hydration from the food they consume and from the limited freshwater they can access.

Seawater Intake and Salt Gland Function

Sea turtles have specialized glands near their eyes that allow them to excrete excess salt absorbed from seawater. These salt glands are critical for maintaining the proper balance of salts in their bodies, allowing them to remove the excess salt that accumulates from their marine diet. As they consume prey such as seaweed, crustaceans, and other marine organisms, sea turtles are able to obtain the necessary hydration from the water content in their food.

Freshwater Sources and Drinking Behavior

While sea turtles do not typically drink seawater, they may occasionally drink from sources of freshwater such as rivers, lakes, or rainwater. This behavior is more commonly observed in freshwater turtle species, but sea turtles have been known to drink from freshwater sources when they are available. The access to freshwater is crucial for their survival, as dehydration can be a significant threat, particularly during nesting periods when female sea turtles require hydration to lay their eggs.

Human Impacts on Sea Turtle Diet

For sea turtles, human impacts on their diet can be significant. Pollution, overfishing, and habitat destruction all play a role in altering the availability of food for these marine reptiles. Conservation efforts and sustainable practices are crucial in addressing these issues.

Pollution and Ocean Health

Sea turtles face a myriad of threats from pollution, including plastic debris and oil spills. Plastic ingestion can lead to blockages in their digestive system and eventual death. Oil spills can contaminate their food sources and habitat, causing long-term damage to their health. Additionally, chemical pollutants in the water can affect the availability and quality of their food, impacting their overall diet and nutritional intake.

Conservation Efforts and Sustainable Practices

Conservation efforts and sustainable practices are crucial in protecting sea turtle diets. Protecting nesting beaches and implementing fishing regulations are essential steps in ensuring the availability of food sources for sea turtles. Additionally, reducing plastic and other pollution in the oceans is imperative for maintaining a healthy marine environment. Adopting sustainable fishing practices and protecting critical habitats are also vital in preserving the natural food sources of sea turtles and ensuring their survival.


Now, it is clear that sea turtles have a varied diet consisting of algae, sea grass, jellyfish, and even crustaceans. They primarily obtain their water from the food they eat and the saltwater that they live in, rarely drinking water directly. However, it is important to note that a sea turtle’s diet and water consumption can vary depending on the species and its habitat. By understanding the dietary habits of sea turtles, conservation efforts can be better tailored to ensure that these majestic creatures have access to the food and water sources necessary for their survival.


Q: What do sea turtles eat?

A: Sea turtles are primarily herbivores, with their diet consisting mainly of sea grasses and algae. However, some species, such as the leatherback turtle, also feed on jellyfish and other soft-bodied organisms. It’s important for sea turtles to maintain a balanced diet to ensure their health and survival.

Q: Do sea turtles drink water?

A: No, sea turtles do not drink water. They obtain their hydration from the food they eat, particularly from the moisture content of the sea grasses and algae they consume. Their kidneys are adapted to excrete excess salt, allowing them to maintain a proper balance of fluids within their bodies while living in a saltwater environment.

Q: Are sea turtles affected by the plastic in the ocean that they might consume?

A: Yes, sea turtles are greatly affected by the plastic pollution in the ocean. They can easily mistake plastic bags for jellyfish and inadvertently consume them, causing blockages in their digestive systems and leading to serious health issues. It’s important to reduce plastic waste and properly dispose of it to protect the marine life, including sea turtles, from the harmful effects of plastic pollution.

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